h-index: 7     i10-index: 6

Document Type : Original Research Article

Authors

1 Assistant Professor of Spine Surgery, Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Chamran Hospital, Namazi Teaching Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

2 Assistant Professor of Spine Surgery, Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Namazi Teaching Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

3 Research center for social Determinants of Health, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran

4 Department of Neurosurgery, Peymanieh Hospital, Trauma Research Center, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran

Abstract

Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a common disease in neurospine surgery. Conservative treatment is effective in 80-90% of patients, and a small percentage (10-20%) need an operation. Lumbar discectomy is the most prevalent and easy surgery; however, it may cause serious catastrophic complications. To avoid complications and treat the LDH, some pearls constitute an important guide. These pearls include correct patient selection, the timing of the operation, correct correlation between patients signs and symptoms and level of LDH, right side of the disc, correct imaging study, underlying instability, nondiscogenic sciatica, the correct location of disc, surgical method, differentiating hip pathology, good positioning technique, anesthesia care and pearls, upper versus lower LDH, and incidental dural tear.

Keywords

Main Subjects

OPEN ACCESS

©2023 The author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

PUBLISHER NOTE

Sami Publishing Company remains neutral concerning jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

CURRENT PUBLISHER

Sami Publishing Company

  1. Alexander M. Dydyk, Ruben Ngnitewe Massa, Fassil B. Mesfin. Disc HerniationIn: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan.2020 Nov 20.
  2. Omidi-Kashani, H. Hejrati, S. Ariamanesh, Asian Spine J., 2016, 10, 955-963. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  3. D. Herron, J.A. Turner, L.A. Novell, S.L. Kreif, Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 1996, 325, 148-155. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  4. B. Sabnis, A.D. Diwan, Indian J. Orthop., 2014, 48, 127-135. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  5. Reihani-Kermani, Ann. Saudi Med., 2004, 24, 273-275. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  6. B. Katirji, A.J. Wilbourn, Neurology, 1988, 38, 1723-1728. [rossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  7. B. Mathews, Clinical features of multiple sclerosis in clinical neurology. Clin. Neurol., 1993, 2, 1098.
  8. F. Kurtzke, Neurology, 1983, 33, 1444-1453. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  9. Steinman, Sci. Am., 1993, 269, 107-114. [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  10. D. Westhout, L.S. Paré, M.E. Linskey, J. Spinal. Cord Med., 2007, 30, 62–66. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  11. Iizuka Y, Iizuka H, Tsutsumi S, et al. Neurosurg. Spine., 2009, 10, 260–264. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  12. E, Garrido, R.H. Rosenwasser, Neurosurgery, 1981, 8, 484–486. [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  13. Abdolhoseinpour, M. Mohseni, A. Kazeminezhad, PAINLESS FOOTDROP IN NEUROSURGERY. Updates in Emergency Medicine. Retrieved from, 2022.
  14. Kim, C.I. Ju, H. S. Kim, S.W. Kim, J. Korean Neurosurg. Soc., 2017, 60, 220–224. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  15. K. Sucu, F. Gelal, Eur. Spine J., 2006, 15, 570-574. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  16. Smithuis, Lumbar Disc Herniationand other causes of nerve compression, Publicationdate, 2014.
  17. Sahrakar, Fr. Talavera, B.H. Kopell, M.G. Nosko, M. Melicharek, Lumbar Disc Disease Workup, Updated: Sep 25, 2018, emedicine.medscape.com
  18. A. Splendiani, L. Patriarca, S. Mariani, E.D. Cesare, M. Gallucci, OMICS J. Radiol., 2015, 4, 2. [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  19. R. Dupuis, K. Yong-Hing, J.D. Cassidy, W.H. Kirkaldy-Willis, Spine., 1985, 10, 262–276. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  20. P. Morgan, T. King, J. Bone Joint Surg. Br., 1957, 39, 6–22. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  21. Kanemura, M. Doita, K. Kasahara, M. Sumi, M. Kurosaka, T. Iguchi, J Spinal Disord Tech., 2009, 22, 479–485. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  22. R.A. Posner, A.A. White III, W.T. Edwards, W.C. Hayes, Spine., 1982, 7, 374–389. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  23. Thome, D. Zevgaridis, O. Leheta, H. Bazner, C. Pockler-Schoniger, J. Wohrle, P. Schmiedek, J. Neurosurg. Spine, 2005, 3, 129–141. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  24. E. Epstein, J. Spinal Disord., 1998, 11, 116–122. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  25. Omidi-Kashani, E.G. Hasankhani, M. Fathi. Iran. J. Med. Sci., 2015, 40, 541-543 [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  1.  
  1. G. Kulcu, S. Naderi, J. Clin. Neurosci., 2008, 15, 1246-1252 [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  2. Lucinda hampton, Chelsea Mclene, Andeela Hafeez, Fauve simoens and Liesa Rodet, Disc Herniation, physiopedia
  3. wheeless textbook of orthopaedics, Disc hrniation
  4. Jeswani, D. Drazin, J.C. Liu, C.H.R.I.S.T.O.P.H.E.R. Ames, F.L. Acosta, 2012. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion: indications and techniques. In Schmidek and Sweet’s operative neurosurgical techniques: indications, methods and results (pp. 1955-1961). Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders. [PDF]
  5. J. Mobbs, A. Loganathan, V. Yeung, P.J. Rao, Orthop. Surg., 2013, 5, 153-163. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  6. J. Buckland, R. Miyamoto, R.D. Patel, J. Slover, A.E. Razi, J. Am. Acad. Orthop. Surg., 2017, 25, e23-e34. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  7. C. Cho, M.A. Ferrante, K.H. Levin, R.L. Harmon, Y.T. So, Muscle Nerve, 2010, 42, 276-282. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  8. Mondelli, A. Aretini, U. Arrigucci, F. Ginanneschi, G. Greco, F, Sicurelli, Neurophysiol. Clin., 2013, 43, 205-215. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  9. Nadeau, M.P. Rosas-Arellano, K.R. Gurr, S.I. Bailey, D.C. Taylor, R. Grewal, D.K. Lawlor, C.S. Bailey, Can. J. Surg., 2013, 56, 372-377. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  10. W. Crawford, G.A. Gie, R.S. Ling, D.W. Murray, J. Bone Joint Surg. Br., 1998, 80, 279-281. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  11. B. Kleiner, R.P. Thorne, J.G. Curd, J. Rheumatol., 1991, 18, 422-427. [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  12. Richard winn, youmans neurological surgery, 5th edition, vol1, chapter25, page600-604. [Publisher]
  13. Lawrence S Chin, Amit Singla, Jorge E Alvernia, Lumbar Discectomy, Updated: Sep 24, 2019. [Publisher]
  14. J. Bosacco, A.T. Berman, L.W. Raisis, R.I. Zamarin, Orthopedics, 1989, 12, 275–278. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  15. J. Albert, R.A. Balderston, J.G. Heller, H.N. Herkowitz, S.R. Garfin, K. Tomany, et al. J. Spinal. Disord., 1993, 6, 351–359. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  16. Hsu, J. Zucherman, W. Shea, J. Kaiser, A. White, J. Schofferman, C. Amelon, Spine, 1990, 15, 679–682. [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  17. P. Sanderson, J. Houten, T. Errico, D. Forshaw, J. Bauman, P.R. Cooper, Neurosurgery, 2004, 55, 385–389. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  18. S. Kim, J.K. Lee, J.W. Jang, B.S. Ko, J.H. Lee, S.H. Kim, J. Korean Neurosurg. Soc., 2010, 48, 119–124. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  19. Abumi, M.M. Panjabi, K.M. Kramer, J. Duranceau, T. Oxland, J.J. Crisco, Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 1990, 15, 1142-1147. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  20. S. Bosacco, M.J. Gardner, J.T. Guille, Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 2001, 389, 238-247. [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  21. K. Kalevski, N.A. Peev, D.G. Haritonov, Asian J. Neurosurg., 2010, 5, 54–59. [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  22. H. Mayfield, K. Kurokawa, J. Neurosurg., 1975, 43, 639-640. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  23. E. Cain, R.F. Dryer, B.R. Barton, Spine, 1988, 13, 720–725, [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  24. J. Eismont, F.W. Wiesel, R.H. Rothman, J. Bone Joint Surg., 1981, 63A, 1132–1136, [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  25. D. Hodges, S.C. Humphreys, J.C. Eck, L.A. Covington, Spine, 1999, 24, 2062–2064, [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  26. C. Wang, H.H. Bohlman, K.D. Riew, J. Bone Joint Surg., 1998, 80, 1728–1732. [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  27. H. Kitchel, F.J. Eismont, B.A. Green, J. Bone Joint Surg., 1989, 71, 984–987. [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  28. McCallum, J.C. Maroon, P.J. Jannetta, J. Neurosurg., 1975, 42, 434–437. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  29. L. Stambough, C.R. Templin, J. Collins, J. Spinal. Disord., 2000, 13, 39–41. [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  30. K. Lauer, J.D. Haddox, J. Clin. Anesth., 1992, 4, 45–47. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  31. F. Maycock, J. van Essen, J. Pfitzner, Spine, 1994, 19, 2223–2225. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  32. M. McCormack, S.L. Taylor, S., Heath, J. Scanlon, Spine, 1996, 21, 2273–2276, [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  33. R. Patel, W. Louie, J. Rachlin, AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol., 1996, 17, 495–500. [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  34. Key, Ann. Surg., 1945, 121, 534–539. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  35. G. Teplick, M.E. Haskin, AJR Am. J. Roentgenol., 1985, 145, 371–375. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  36. Macki, M. Hernandez-Hermann, M. Bydon, A. Gokaslan, K. McGovern, A. Bydon, Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg., 2014, 120, 136–141. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  37. H. Ahn, M.W. Ahn, W.M. Byun, Spine, 2000, 25, 475–480. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  38. Takada, M. Takahashi, K. Shimada, J. Orthop. Surg., 2001, 9, 1–7. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  39. Henmi, K. Sairyo, S. Nakano, Y. Kanematsu, T. Kajikawa, S. Katoh, V.K. Goel, J. Med. Investig., 2002, 49, 40–43. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  40. V. Slavin, A. Raja, J. Thornton, F.C. Wagner Jr, Surg. Neurol., 2001, 56, 333–336. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  41. A. Autio, J. Karppinen, J. Niinimaki, R. Ojala, M. Kurunlahti, M. Haapea, M. Haapea, H. Vanharanta, O. Tervonen, Spine, 2006, 31, 1247–1252. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  42. Kobayashi, A. Meir, Y. Kokubo, K. Uchida, K. Takeno, T. Miyazaki, T. Yayama, M. Kubota, E. Nomura, E. Mwaka, H. Baba, Spine, 2009, 34, 655–662. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  43. Yoshida, T. Nakamura, A. Sei, T. Kikuchi, K. Takagi, A. Matsukawa, Spine, 2005, 30, 55–61. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  44. Cunha, A.J. Silva, P. Pereira, R. Vaz, R.M. Gonçalves, M.A. Barbosa, Arthritis Res. Ther., 2018, 20, 251. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  45. C. Chiu, T.Y. Chuang, K.H. Chang, C.H. Wu, P.W. Lin, W.Y. Hsu, Clin. Rehabil., 2015, 29, 184–195. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]