h-index: 7     i10-index: 5

Document Type : Original Research Article

Author

Ph.D. Student in Animal Physiology, Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Schizophrenia has existed throughout history, as ancient Greek physicians have described it with different symptoms, but it was not seriously studied until the second half of the nineteenth century, and from the second half of the nineteenth century the classifications related to Schizophrenia developed, which of course was very personal and tasteful. Arnold pick was the first to use the term Dementia praecox to describe the apparently Hebephrenic type of psychiatric disorder. Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by persistent or recurrent forms of psychosis. The main symptoms include hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking. Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe brain disease that affects a person's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, as well as impairing a person's realism. The onset of the disease is between the ages of 16 and 30, but in rare cases it is also seen in childhood. The prevalence is equal in men and women, but the onset age is earlier in men than women. The age of onset in women is two peaks. The age of onset is 10 to 25 years for men and 25 to 35 years for women. The onset of the disease before the age of 10 and after the age of 60 is rare. In cases that start after the age of 45, it is called schizophrenia with a late onset.

Graphical Abstract

Schizophrenia: Mechanisms and Neurotransmitters

Keywords

Main Subjects

[1]  K. McNally, A Critical History of Schizophrenia: Springer, 2016, 21-38. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[2]  A.M.M. Fard, M.M. Fard, Eurasian Journal of Science and Technology, 2021, 1, 384-398. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[3]  R.W. Heinrichs, Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 2003, 39, 349-63. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[4]  M.Á. Macías Islas, E. Ciampi, Biomedicines, 2019, 7, 22. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[5]  F. Zare Kazemabadi, A. Heydarinasab, A. Akbarzadehkhiyavi, M. Ardjmand, Chemical Methodologies, 2021, 5, 135-152. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[6]  M. Bagheri sadr, A. Bozorgian, International Journal of Advanced Studies in Humanities and Social Science, 2020, 9, 252-261. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[7]  R.A. McCutcheon, T.R. Marques, O.D. Howes, JAMA psychiatry, 2020, 77, 201-210. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[8]  G. Ursini, G. Punzi, Q. Chen, S. Marenco, J.F. Robinson, A. Porcelli, E.G. Hamilton, M. Mitjans, G. Maddalena, M. Begemann, J. Seidel, H. Yanamori, A.E. Jaffe, K.F. Berman, M.F. Egan, R.E. Straub, C. Colantuoni, G. Blasi, R. Hashimoto, D. Rujescu, H. Ehrenreich, A. Bertolino, D.R. Weinberger, Nature medicine, 2018, 24, 792-801. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[9]  A.K. Wang, B.J. Miller, Schizophrenia bulletin, 2018, 44, 75-83. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[10]       U. Meyer, M.J. Schwarz, N. Müller, Pharmacology & therapeutics, 2011, 132, 96-110. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[11]       N. Müller, Schizophrenia bulletin, 2018, 44, 973-982. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[12]       P.J. Norton, D.J. Paulus, Clinical Psychology Review, 2017, 56, 122-137. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[13]       I. Ellison-Wright, E. Bullmore, Schizophrenia research, 2009, 108, 3-10. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[14]       A. Anticevic, Schizophrenia research, 2016, 180, 1-3. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[15]       D.K. Sarpal, D.G. Robinson, T. Lencz, M. Argyelan, T. Ikuta, K. Karlsgodt, J.A. Gallego, J.M. Kane, P.R. Szeszko, A.K. Malhotra, JAMA psychiatry, 2015, 72, 5-13. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[16]       D. Treen, S. Batlle, L. Mollà, E. Forcadell, J. Chamorro, A. Bulbena, V. Perez, Schizophrenia research, 2016, 171, 166-75. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[17]       E. Canu, F. Agosta, M. Filippi, Schizophrenia research, 2015, 161, 19-28. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[18]       O. Dandash, C. Pantelis, A. Fornito, Schizophrenia research, 2017, 180, 48-57. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[19]       A. Bozorgian, S. Zarinabadi, A. Samimi, Journal of Chemical Reviews, 2020, 2, 122-129. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[20]       P.J. Fitzgerald, Psychiatry research, 2014, 215, 497-504. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[21]       J. Dąbrowska, M. Wójcik, J. Szarpak, D. Bator, J. Milanowska, H. Nieścior, Journal of Education, Health and Sport, 2020, 10, 332-9. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[22]       P.J. Fitzgerald, Medical hypotheses, 2014, 82, 462-9. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[23]       B.K. Puri, Medical Hypotheses, 2016, 96, A4-A5 [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[24]       R Alimoradzadeh, M Mokhtare, S Agah, Iranian Journal of Ageing, 2017, 12, 78-89. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[25]       T.J. Crow, British medical journal, 1980, 280, 66. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[26]       G. Remington, G. Foussias, O. Agid, CNS drugs, 2010, 24, 9-20. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[27]       J.P. John, A. Lukose, S. Manjunath, Pharmacopsychiatry, 2014, 47, 202-209. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[28]       M.M. Fard, A.M.M. Fard, Eurasian Journal of Science and Technology, 2021, 1, 271-283. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[29]       M. Mokhtare, R. Alimoradzadeh, S. Agah, H. Mirmiranpour, N. Khodabandehloo,, Middle East journal of digestive diseases, 2017, 9, 228. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[30]       R. Alimoradzadeh, H. Mirmiranpour, P. Hashemi, S. Pezeshki, S.S. Salehi, Journal of Neurology & Neurophysiology, 2019, 10, 1-5. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[31]       R. Alimoradzadeh, M.A. Abbasi, F. Zabihi, H. Mirmiranpour, Iranian Journal of Ageing, 2021, 15, 524-533. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[32]       S Etemadi, B Mahmoodiyeh, S Rajabi, A Kamali, M Milanifard, Annals of the Romanian Society for Cell Biology, 2021, 25, 2417-2426. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[33]       S. Zarinabadi, A. Esfandiyari, S.A. Khoddami, A. Samimi, Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 2016, 8, 1133-1149. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[34]       S. Zarinabadi, A. Samimi, Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 2016, 8, 1160-1172. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[35]       M. Bagheri Sadr, A. Bozorgian, Journal of Chemical Reviews, 2021, 3, 66-82. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[36]       M. Bagheri Sadr, A. Bozorgian, Journal of Chemical Reviews, 2021, 3, 66-82. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[37] A. Bozorgian, Journal of Chemical Reviews, 2021, 3, 50-65. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[38]       A. Amini, H. Shahpoori Arani, M. Milani Fard, Eurasian Journal of Science and Technology, 2021, 1, 421-424. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[39]       A.M.M. Fard, M.M. Fard, Eurasian Journal of Science and Technology, 2021, 1, 384-398. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[40]       A. Samimi, International Science and Investigation journal, 2014, 3, 57-64. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[41]       A. Samimi, Journal of Engineering in Industrial Research, 2021, 2, 71-76. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[42]       A. Susanabadi, M.S. Sadri, H. Taleby, S. Etemadi, B. Mahmoodiyeh, M.M. Fard, Annals of the Roma-nian Society for Cell Biology, 2021, 25, 2703-2716. [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[43]       A.M.M. Fard, M.M. Fard, Eurasian Journal of Science and Technology Research, 2021, 1, 284-301. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[44]       A.M.M. Fard, M.M. Fard, Eurasian Journal of Science and Technology, 2021, 1, 284-301. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[45]       A.O. Shirazi, H. Jahandideh, A. Yarahmadi, M.M. Fard, M.M. Delarestaghi, Medical Science, 2020, 24, 2467-2474 [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[46]       B. Mahmoodiyeh, S. Etemadi, A. Kamali, S. Rajabi, M.M. Fard, Annals of the Romanian Society for Cell Biology, 2021, 25, 2559–2572. [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[47]       Barmasi, Journal of Engineering in Industrial Research, 2020, 1, 161-169. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[48]       A. Bozorgian, Journal of Engineering in Industrial Research, 2020, 1, 1-18. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[49]       E.S. Motaharian, B. Mahmoodiyeh, S. Lorestani, M.S. Sadri, M.M. Fard, A.M.M. Fard, A. Amini, Journal of Chemical Reviews, 2021, 3, 171-180. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]