h-index: 7     i10-index: 6

Document Type : Original Research Article


Associate Professor of Anesthesiology, Department of Anesthesiology, Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran


Introduction: Cesarean section is one of the most common surgeries in gynecology, after which pain leads to many complications. This study aimed at comparing the effects of propofol and ketamine on postoperative complications under spinal anesthesia.
Material and Methods: In this study, to compare the effect of propofol and ketamine on pain, chills and nausea, and vomiting after cesarean section under spinal anesthesia, 111 patients who were candidates for elective cesarean section were compared in terms of side effects of propofol and ketamine.
Results: The rest of the pain intensity in the ketofol and ketamine groups was significantly lower in the other groups (p <0.05). Also, the rate of drug use in the ketofol and ketamine groups was significantly lower compared with the other groups (p <0.05).
Conclusion: The combination of ketamine + propofol  (ketofol) can control the complications after spinal anesthesia in elective cesarean section.


Main Subjects


©2023 The author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/


Sami Publishing Company remains neutral concerning jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.


Sami Publishing Company

  1. Solo, S. Lavi, C. Kabali, G.N. Levine, A. Kulik, A.A. John-Baptiste, S.E. Fremes, J. Martin, J.W. Eikelboom, M. Ruel, A.A. Huitema, T. Choudhury, D.L. Bhatt, N. Tzemos, M.A. Mamas, R. Bagur, BMJ, 2019, 367 [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  2. Hashemzadeh, M. Dehdilani, M K. Gol, Int. J. Womens Health Reprod. Sci., 2021, 9, 69-74 [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  3. Tzoumas, S. Giannopoulos, P. Texakalidis, N. Charisis, T. Machinis, G. J. Koullias, Ann. Vasc. Surg., 2020, 63, 427-438 [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  4. Wang, X. Zhou, X. Liao, B. Liu, H. Yu, J. Anesth., 2019, 33, 543-550 [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  5. Dehdilani, M. K. Gol, K. Hashemzadeh, Crescent J. Med. Biol. Sci., 2019, 6, 350-354 [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  1. Jannati, M. R. Navaei, L. G. Ronizi, J. Family Med. Prim. Care, 2019, 8, 2768-2773 [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  2. Hashemzadeh, M. Dehdilani, M. K. Gol, Int. J. Women’s Health Reprod. Sci., 2020, 8, 406-411 [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  3. Correa-Rodríguez, M. Abu Ejheisheh, N. Suleiman-Martos, M.J. Membrive-Jiménez, A. Velando-Soriano, J. Schmidt-RioValle, J.L. Gómez-Urquiza, J. Clin. Med., 2020, 9, 909 [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  4. Hashemzadeh, M. Dehdilani, M.K. Gol, Crescent J. Med. Biol. Sci., 2019, 6, 517-522 [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  5. Kodia, S. Patel, M. P. Weber, J. G. Luc, J. H. Choi, E. J. Maynes, S.-S. A. Rizvi, D. P. Horan, H. T. Massey, J. W. Entwistle, Ann. Cardiothorac. Surg., 2018, 7, 586-597 [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  6. Spadaccio, D. Glineur, E. Barbato, A. Di Franco, K. G. Oldroyd, G. Biondi-Zoccai, F. Crea, S. E. Fremes, D. J. Angiolillo, M. Gaudino, Cardiovasc. Interv., 2020, 13, 1086
  7. Wadey, J. Lopes, M. Bendeck, S. George, Cardiovasc. Res., 2018, 114, 601-610 [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]